## Exercises:

- STAT1S_SDA - Exercise Using SDA to Explore Levels of Measurement
- STAT2S_SDA - Exercise Using SDA to Explore Measures of Central Tendency and Dispersion
- STAT3S_SDA - Exercise Using SDA to Explore Measures of Skewness and Kurtosis
- STAT4S_SDA - Exercise Using SDA to Explore Graphs and Charts
- STAT5S_SDA - Omitted
- STAT6S_SDA - Exercise Using SDA to Compare Means and Test Hypotheses
- STAT7S_SDA - Omitted
- STAT8S_SDA - Exercise Using SDA to Explore Hypothesis Testing – One-Way Analysis of Variance
- STAT9S_SDA - Exercise Using SDA to Explore Crosstabulation
- STAT10S_SDA - Exercise Using SDA to Explore Chi Square
- STAT11S_SDA - Exercise Using SDA to Explore Measures of Association
- STAT12S_SDA - Exercise Using SDA to Explore Spuriousness
- STAT13.1S_SDA - Exercise Using SDA to Explore Correlation
- STAT13.2S_SDA - Exercise Using SDA to Make Comparison of Correlations
- STAT14S_SDA - Exercise Using SDA to Explore Bivariate Linear Regression
- STAT15S_SDA - Exercise Using SDA to Explore Multiple Linear Regression
- STAT16S_SDA - Exercise Using SDA to Explore Dummy Variable Regression

Author: Ed Nelson

Department of Sociology M/S SS97

California State University, Fresno

Fresno, CA 93740

Email: ednelson@csufresno.edu

© The Author, 2016; Last Modified October 24 , 2016.

This is the third in a series of exercises developed for instructors teaching an introductory class in statistics. This set uses SDA (Survey Documentation and Analysis). There is another set of exercises using SPSS and a second set using PSPP. All three sets of exercises are on the Social Science Research and Instructional Council’s website.

The exercises were written so each exercise is independent of the others and any one exercise can be used even if the other exercises are not used. There are two exceptions. Exercises STAT13.1S and STAT13.2S both focus on correlation and should be used together. Exercises STAT14S, STAT15S, and STAT16S all focus on regression and are best used as a unit. Because the exercises were written to stand alone there is often duplication across the exercises. If you use several of the exercises together you may want to edit them to remove this duplication or to add material of your own.

Two exercises in the original series were omitted in the SDA version. STAT5S dealt with the one-sample t test and STAT7S dealt with the paired-samples t test. Neither of these tests is included in SDA. I have kept the numbering from the first series of 16 exercises developed for SPSS so it would be easier to make consistent references to a particular exercise.

One exercise was added to the series. Exercise STAT13 was split into two exercises (STAT13.1S and STAT13.2S) to take advantage of the option to compare correlations in SDA using COMPARISON OF CORRELATIONS.

These instructional exercises were originally written for SPSS. However, some colleges, including many community colleges, do not have a site license for SPSS. The cost of SPSS is often prohibitive, so I rewrote the exercises for SDA which was developed by the Survey Methods Program at UC Berkeley. SDA is freely available to anyone with internet access.

The data set used in these exercises is the 2014 General Social Survey. The data have been weighted according to instructions from the National Opinion Research Center.

Each exercise consists of two files both of which can be downloaded:

- notes to instructor as a Word (docx) file, and
- the exercise itself as a Word (docx) file.

These exercises are not a comprehensive treatment of these statistical tools. They do not discuss how to compute most of the statistics nor do they discuss all the assumptions of these statistics. You may want to add some of this information to the exercises.

You have permission to use these exercises and to revise them to fit your needs. I would appreciate receiving a copy of your revision so I can see how the exercises are being used. If you find any errors in the exercise, please email me and I will correct them. I would also like to hear from you about your experiences using the exercises. Please contact me for more information.

Each exercise has a set of keywords which are listed below. After each keyword you’ll find the words SDA, statistics or methods indicating whether it is a SDA or a statistical or a methodological term. There are also two spreadsheets – one for statistical and methodological terms and another for SDA terms which will help you find appropriate exercises. I have also prepared notes on using SDA which you might find helpful.

Keywords for the Exercises

- STAT1S_SDA: Frequencies (SDA), levels of measurement (statistics), nominal measure (statistics), ordinal measure (statistics), interval measure (statistics), ratio measure (statistics)
- STAT2S_SDA: Frequencies (SDA), mode (statistics), median (statistics), mean (statistics), skewness (statistics), normal distribution (statistics), bar chart (statistics), range (statistics), variance (statistics), standard deviation (statistics)
- STAT3S_SDA: Frequencies (SDA), normal distribution (statistics), mean (statistics), median (statistics), mode (statistics), skewness (statistics), kurtosis (statistics), bar chart (statistics)
- STAT4S_SDA: Frequencies (SDA), recoding (SDA), pie chart (statistics), bar chart (statistics), stacked bar chart (statistics), line chart (statistics)
- STAT5S: Omitted
- STAT6S_SDA: means (SDA), independent-samples t test (statistics), population (statistics), sample (statistics), statistic (statistics), parameter (statistics), inference (statistics), probability sampling (statistics), non-probability sampling (statistics), sampling error (statistics), research hypothesis (statistics), null hypothesis(statistics)
- STAT7S: Omitted
- STAT8S_SDA: means (SDA), one-way analysis of variance (statistics), population (statistics), sample (statistics), statistic (statistics), parameter (statistics), inference (statistics), probability sampling (statistics), non-probability sampling (statistics), sampling error (statistics), research hypothesis (statistics), null hypothesis(statistics)
- STAT9S_SDA: Crosstabs (SDA), crosstabulation (statistics), row percents (statistics), column percents (statistics), independent variable (statistics), dependent variable (statistics), two-variable tables (statistics), three-variable tables (statistics)
- STAT10S_SDA: Crosstabs (SDA), Chi Square (statistics), observed frequencies (statistics), expected frequencies (statistics), degrees of freedom (statistics), significance (statistics), crosstabulation (statistics)
- STAT11S_SDA: Crosstabs (SDA), Chi Square (statistics), column percents (statistics), independent variable (statistics), dependent variable (statistics), measures of association (statistics), symmetric measures (statistics), asymmetric measures (statistics), Contingency Coefficient (statistics), Cramer's V (statistics), Gamma (statistics), Somer's d(statistics), Kendall's Tau-b (statistics), Kendall's Tau-c (statistics)
- STAT12S_SDA: Crosstabs (SDA), recode (SDA), column percents (statistics), Chi Square (statistics), measures of association (statistics), hypothesis (methods), argument (methods), dummy table (methods), two-variable tables (statistics), three-variable tables (statistics), spuriousness (statistics)
- STAT13.1S_SDA: Correlation (SDA), means (SDA), linear relationship (statistics), positive relationship (statistics), negative relationship (statistics), curvilinear relationship (statistics), Pearson Correlation Coefficient (r) (statistics), Coefficient of Determination (statistics), correlation matrix (statistics), Eta-Squared (statistics)
- STAT13.2S_SDA: Correlation (SDA), comparison of correlations (SDA), linear relationship (statistics), positive relationship (statistics),,negative relationship (statistics), curvilinear relationship (statistics), Pearson Correlation Coefficient (r) (statistics), Coefficient of Determination (statistics)
- STAT14S_SDA: regression (SDA), frequencies (SDA), recoding (SDA), Pearson correlation coefficient (statistics), Pearson correlation coefficient squared (statistics), linear relationship, linear regression equation (statistics), slope (statistics), constant (statistics), t test (statistics)
- STAT15S_SDA: regression (SDA), frequencies (SDA), recoding (SDA), outliers (statistics), multiple linear regression (statistics), unstandardized regression coefficient (statistics), standardized regression coefficient (statistics), Pearson Correlation Coefficient (statistics), adjusted R squared (statistics), tests of significance (statistics), multicollinearity (statistics)
- STAT16S_SDA: regression (SDA), recoding (SDA), frequencies (SDA), dummy variables (statistics), multiple linear regression (statistics), unstandardized regression coefficient (statistics), standardized regression coefficient (statistics), Pearson Multiple Correlation Coefficient (statistics), tests of significance (statistics)